Background: Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) is a serious Chronic Lung Disease (CLD) occurring in neonates mainly in premature infants treated with oxygen and mechanical ventilation. Aim: Detection of the serum vitamin A levels in neonates with BPD. Patient and Methods: A prospective case-control study was done on 40 neonates incubated in NICU of Tanta university hospital suffering from respiratory distress which was diagnosed as BPD (patient group) and 40 healthy neonates with matched gestational age and sex (control group). The study was done from June 2016 to March 2018. A sample of venous blood was taken from infants within the first 3 hours. Serum retinol (RT) levels were resolved utilizing high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: Serum RT levels were significantly lower in cases that developed BPD (patient group) if compared with healthy neonates (control group). The cutoff value of serum RT in neonates with BPD was 0.68 μmol/L with sensitivity and specificity was 96%, 92% respectively. Conclusion: Neonates with BPD are accompanied by a decreased in serum levels of vitamin A and could be used as an early predictor for developing BPD in neonates. Recommendation: vitamin A supplementation to the neonates who are susceptible to develop BPD.