Background: Pneumonectomy is defined as the surgical removal of the entire lung. Pneumonectomy was first performed in 1933 by Evarts A. Graham for lung carcinoma. Indications for pneumonectomy can be broadly classified into malignant and non-malignant lung disease. Pneumonectomy is usually performed through a posterolateral thoracotomy incision as it provides the best exposure. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted in 100 patients who underwent pneumonectomy for different indications over a period of 9 years from May 2013 till May 2021 in Thi-Qar governorate. On admission, an informative history was taken from every patient including age, gender, onset and nature of clinical features related to disease itself . Other data included possible chronic diseases, presence of previous surgical operation and history of drug allergy and complications following surgery. Results: Males were affected slightly higher than females (55%). The ages affected ranged from less than 10 years to more than 60 years. Regarding the presentation, 60% of the patients suffered from cough and significant number of our patients (50%) had anorexia and fever. Perioperative complications included sinus tachycardia and atelectasis (40%) while mortality was mainly due to fatal bleeding. Conclusion: Pneumonectomy is indicated mainly for malignant lung disease. Single lung is compatible with life. Bleeding is a major challenge during and after surgical procedure of pneumonectomy.